Status epilepticus (SE) is a single seizure lasting more than 5 minutes or 2 or more seizures within a 5-minute period without the person returning to normal between them. With an estimated incidence of 15 to 20 cases per 100,000 people, SE is considered the most common neurological emergency around the world, often requiring intensive care. Only 25% of people who experience status epilepticus have epilepsy. Non-epilepsy causes of status include, but are not limited to: stroke, hemorrhage, intoxicants, metabolic imbalances, insufficient dosage or sudden withdrawal of medicine, and alcohol withdrawal. Johns Hopkins offers this patient resource on SE.
New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE) is a type of status epilepticus in which healthy people suddenly develop prolonged seizures that do not respond to at least two anti-seizure drugs and do not have a clear structural, toxic or metabolic cause. Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES), once considered a pediatric condition, is now listed as a subset of NORSE. Excellent resources can be found through the NORSE Institute.